Every year, adults all over the country are denied loans, rental applications and even jobs because of a poor credit score.
Start working towards a robust credit history at an early age. You'll be a step ahead of your peers and avoid a bad credit score altogether.
If you are wondering how to establish credit at 18, you have come to the right place. Building credit and achieving a good credit score may not be easy, but it is somewhat simple. Your top three options for establishing credit when you're 18 are:
The earlier you can start building a good credit history, the easier it will be to make the transition into adulthood. It's hard enough navigating your way through life as a twentysomething without handicapping your financial potential.
Having a good credit score will also make it easier to buy a car, refinance a student loan, and eventually buy a house.
Looking to get a credit card when you're 18? The short answer is maybe, but you will need to show proof of income or that you have assets (money in the bank) to be able to repay whatever you charge since you do not have any kind of payment history to show.
When you're young, you probably have little financial evidence such as a payment history or credit rating for lenders to trust you, which can make building credit at 18 difficult. You may have little or no income, you don't have any real assets and you might still be relying on your parents.
In short, any reliable business or financial institution won't be able to accurately assess the risk of lending you money. That's why you need a credit history. A solid credit history shows that you're financially responsible and have a good score. Lenders want to know they can trust you to repay them on time and in full each time you make a monthly payment.
A credit score is a numerical representation of your credit history, from 300 to 850. The higher your score, the more reliable you appear as a borrower. If you’ve never used any form of credit line, you’ll have no credit score at all.
Looking to build credit fast? Remember, building a positive credit history is a process, especially if you do not qualify for a traditional credit card.
Plan on three to six months to establish your credit score, according to Experian , one of the major credit bureaus. That may feel like a long time when you're trying to get financial things done, but in the context of an average lifespan, it's not so long. Building excellent credit takes time and there's nothing you can do overnight to get to a high credit score. Let the reporting process run its course in order for you to achieve a good credit score.
Without a credit history or score, you might struggle to rent an apartment, sign up for a cell phone plan, get an auto loan, or even hook up utilities. Many of these services will require a deposit if you have no credit - and some may deny you outright.
Teens who want to move out and become financially independent need this advice the most. It’s not uncommon for a landlord to run a credit check. If you don’t have that, they’ll either ask for a co-signer or deny your application.
Any risks in trying to establish your credit score will depend on how you’re trying to do it.
As an authorized user, there is some risk because your credit history is dependent on your parents' use of credit (assuming you didn't get your own card). With a credit builder loan, the risk comes from failing to make the payments on time. With a secured credit card, you have dual risks of using too much of your credit limit and making late payments.
To reduce risk you need to be disciplined - don't overextend yourself and make sure you make timely payments on time to your credit card company. Don’t know how to build credit at 18? Here are your top options:
If your parents have good credit scores, you can ask them to add you as an authorized user on their credit card (this is also known as piggybacking credit).
As an authorized user, any credit line activity that happens on the card will be reported on your credit report. If your parents make on-time payments and follow good credit procedures, this will improve your credit score. When done right, becoming an authorized user to build credit can help you establish a solid credit score and build excellent credit from a young age.
Before your parents add you, have them call the credit card provider to verify that the credit card issuer reports activity for an authorized user. While many major credit card issuers do report to the credit bureau on behalf of authorized users, it's still good to confirm.
Only use the authorized user strategy if you're completely confident in your parents' credit habits. If they have credit utilization that’s too high or fail to make on-time payments, you could end up in a worse financial situation than before you started building credit.
Your parents may be hesitant to add an authorized user if they suspect you'll run up a huge credit balance. You can make them more comfortable by telling them you don't need a copy of the card, because you're just trying to build credit.
If you go the route of becoming an authorized user, the credit card may quickly report to the credit bureaus, but the amount of time it takes for the various credit bureaus to update their records and establish a credit score can vary.
A little-known way to build credit without a credit card is the credit builder loan. Credit unions and banks offer credit builder loans to customers who want to build credit without opening a credit card. Self provides credit builder loans online to residents in all 50 states.
A credit builder loan works differently than a traditional loan. When a customer borrows a regular loan, they receive the money up front and then repay the loan over time. If you take out a mortgage, you get the money to pay the homeowner immediately and then repay the bank or credit union over several decades.
With a credit builder loan, the bank or credit union doesn't give you the amount right away. The lender places the amount you borrowed in a savings account or certificate of deposit (CD) that you don't have access to. Every month, you make a payment until you've repaid the loan. Then, the lender gives you access to the money that was held in your name.
Most banks have a one or two-year term for these loans, and interest rates range from 5% to 16%. Credit builder loans are often in small dollar amounts, maxing out at $1,000. Lenders who offer credit builder loans report the activity to credit bureaus, who are responsible for establishing your credit history. The payment activity and reporting can help to build your credit score.
To be eligible for a credit builder loan, you usually need the following:
You'll also need to be able to make the payments, so be sure the credit builder loan you choose is affordable to you.
If you have some income, you can sign up for a secured credit card. A secured credit card requires a deposit matching the credit limit, which serves as collateral to the card provider, but otherwise functions exactly like a normal card. The interest rate may be slightly higher and there are typically fewer rewards, but it's a great option for someone who can't qualify for a traditional card.
To establish a good credit score with a secured card, use it sparingly and pay your bill before it's due. It’s generally recommended to keep a balance less than 30% of the card's credit limit.
Some card providers will give you access to credit score tracking software so you can monitor progress. After a few months of using a secured card responsibly, you might be upgraded to a regular credit card. When that happens, you’ll get your deposit back. Learn more about how to use a secured credit card to build credit.
Once you qualify for a traditional credit card, you may enjoy the benefit of rewards programs and a lower interest rate. Just remember to keep following responsible credit habits, pay your monthly payment, and don't open too many new lines of credit, as that can make your credit score drop.
When you monitor your spending closely, it reduces your chances of going over your credit limit, or having a credit card balance you can’t afford to repay by your due date, which could otherwise hurt your credit.
The best way to spend responsibly with a regular credit card is to spend only what you can afford to repay and to closely monitor your credit utilization ratio. If you have a credit limit of $1,000, don't rack up an $800 balance each month if you can't afford to pay it off.
Using too much of your credit card limit each month could hurt your credit score.
Zina Kumok is a Financial Health Counselor and Credit Counselor, certified by the National Association of Certified Credit Counselors, who writes extensively about personal finance. See Zina on Linkedin and Twitter.
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